International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice https://ijtarp.org/ <p style="text-align: center;">IJTARP is an open access journal that publishes TA theory, practice and research across the full range of TA applications. It also promotes research comparing TA and other models and non-TA research that has significant implications for TA theory or practice. It also publishes papers on the practice and theoretical underpinnings of TA.</p> <p style="text-align: center;">IJTARP has an ongoing partnership with <a href="https://taresearch.org/ijtarp-abstract-translations/">the TA Research website, where abstracts are published in a number of alternative languages </a>. These translations are kindly provided by volunteers from the international TA community.&nbsp; If abstracts in your language are not yet listed on the TA Research website and you would like to join the community of volunteers in helping create further translations, please feel free to <a href="https://www.ijtarp.org/about/contact">contact us</a>.</p> <p style="text-align: center;">Open access publishing costs money - even though the IJTARP Editor and the Reviewers, Authors and Translators all provide their services voluntarily. Big publishers charge authors c. $2000 or more per paper to make their work open to all. IJTARP charges authors nothing and lets them keep their copyright. Please help us maintain this arrangement. And please tell your colleagues about this great free resource of TA research and practice.&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="Donate to IJTARP" href="https://ictaq.org/donate-to-ijtarp/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Please click here to make a donation</a>.</p> International Centre For Transactional Analysis Qualifications CIC en-US International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice 2218-3159 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" alt="Creative Commons License" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png"></a></p> <p>The work in this journal is licensed under <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> <p><a name="privacyStatement"></a></p> Self-Empathy as a Necessary Element for Regulation of Emotions https://ijtarp.org/article/view/22933 <p>The need to care about each other, identifying ourselves with what we have in common, as living beings, human beings on this planet, is currently becoming a focus in studies and reflections among researchers in neuroscience, behaviour, emotions and social relationships, to name a few. In the area of health promotion and psychotherapy, it is no different. Particularly in the last two decades, the expansion of knowledge about the brain and nervous system in neuroscience research has provided information to relate these areas to understanding of the individual and their relationships, contributing to reflections, understanding and proposals for action and possible release from human suffering. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative article is to reflect, based on a Narrative Review of recent literature, on the possibility of understanding empathy as originating from primary or natural emotion. In conclusion, the importance of regulating emotions becomes evident, considering self-empathy so that its function of regulating our instincts with the purpose of survival, well-being and evolution, can happen, in the individual and social fields.</p> <p><em>This paper appeared originally in Portuguese as</em><em>. </em><em>Autoempatia Como Elemento Necessário Para Regulação Das Emoções. Revista Brasileira de Análise Transacional, 2021 </em><em>and is reproduced here by kind permission of UNAT-BRASIL - União Nacional de Analistas Transacionais – Brasil&nbsp;</em><em>(</em><a href="https://unat.org.br/portal/rebat-2021.php"><em>https://unat.org.br/portal/rebat-2021.php</em></a><em>)</em></p> Jane Maria Pancinha Costa Ronel Alberti da Rosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 13 1 62 71 10.29044/v13i1p62 Cross-cultural Study of Teacher Passivity through the Lens of Educational Transactional Analysis https://ijtarp.org/article/view/22931 <p><em>This article was previously published in the European Research Studies Journal, Volume XXIV, Issue 3B, 72-95, 2021, and we acknowledge with thanks the permission given by that journal to reproduce it here due to its TA content.</em></p> <p><em>Like IJTARP, the ESJR is a refereed open access publication. It covers a wide variety of topics in the fields of business and economics, and can be accessed at www.ersj.eu.</em></p> <p><em>We have used minimal editing, which has included formatting and English spelling</em>.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The purpose of the article is to present the research results based on the concept of passivity in accordance with the assumptions of transactional analysis – one of the psychotherapeutic modalities in the humanistic school of thought. Passivity is defined as behaviors that block constructive and solution-oriented actions.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The main research methods included diagnostic surveys and questionnaire techniques. The study used the “Reality of an Educator” questionnaire by Anna Pierzchała (2013). 441 respondents provided their answers from Guatemala, Poland, the UK and Ukraine. The differences were identified using the Kruskal–Wallis test, the equivalent of a one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) that is commonly used for independent samples.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The comparative cross-cultural research on teacher passive behaviours indicated significant educational differences between countries. The lowest levels of passivity were reported in Guatemala [1] and the highest in Ukraine. The Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimensions enabled the authors to outline some generic tendencies concerning passive behaviours in the countries studied. Individually reported levels of passivity were bridged with cultural determinants resulting from teachers’ social functioning.</p> <p><strong>Practical Implications:</strong> The study offers some guidelines for tackling teacher passivity and identifies strategies of enhancing problem-solving skills. The most common passive behaviour across all countries was overadaptation, which underlined the importance of developing teachers’ awareness of interpersonal phenomena from the point of view of transactional analysis.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> The research presented has not been carried out before and at this stage has an exploratory character, indicating certain inter-culturally declared patterns and at the same time determining areas for further investigation. Transactional analysis appears to be a useful theoretical construct in the design of cross-cultural comparative studies.</p> Anna Pierzchała Edyta Widawska Piotr Jusik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 13 1 28 52 10.29044/v13i1p28 Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Therapists’ Experience of Working Through the COVID-19 Global Emergency using Transactional Analysis https://ijtarp.org/article/view/22930 <p>This is a qualitative research study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) (Smith, 1995) into the experiences of UK-based Transactional Analysis therapists working with clients prior to and during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Aimed at identifying what it is like to transition from working therapeutically in established, predeominantly in-person, relationships with clients to abruptly having to manage major adjustments both personally and professionally in parallel with clients navigating analogous challenges in their own lives, findings suggest that the participants experienced traumatic stress reactions. Participants initially felt unprepared to manage the multiple challenges of moving from in-person to online therapy with clients. In addition to technological and ethical issues, they experienced changes to the quality and nature of the therapeutic relationship. However, they also found positive aspects of online working as time progressed and experienced a sense of professional empowerment. They perceived the role of professional bodies and training establishments as significant. The diversity of online training available across countries and communities was appreciated although the quality of the learning experiences varied.</p> Claire Daplyn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 13 1 11 27 10.29044/v13i1p11